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Atopic Dermatitis

The primary causes of atopic dermatitis include environmental factors, hereditary disposition, immunological responses and problems in the skin’s protective barrier. Environmental factors that can contribute to atopic dermatitis include environmental pollution such as air pollutants, food additives, use of carpets, beds and sofas, and substances and organisms that cause allergies (i.e. allergens) such as mites that become more prevalent at higher indoor temperatures.

 

  • Symptoms

The skin will feel extremely dry, itchy and red. Keratosis pilaris, eczema and scabs can occur, and small bumps and blisters can also form. In severe cases, the skin will thicken and become discolored.

  • Treatment Methods

If your skin feels dry, you should apply moisturizer regularly, in addition to controlling the temperature and humidity level of your surrounding environment and maintaining a good dietary practice. Also, you should avoid various factors that can cause allergic reactions such as pollen, dust and animal hair.

Depending on the patient condition, topic steroids or adrenocortical hormones may be used, and in case the itchiness is severe, antihistamines are prescribed. In addition, UV treatment and cyclosprin, which is an immunosuppressant, may be employed.

Seborrheic Dermatitis

This is a type of prolonged eczema, and it is a very common skin disease. It is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that occurs in the areas where there is excess sebum secretion such as on the scalp and face, particularly the eyebrows, nose and mouth areas, and ears, as well as the armpits, chest and groin.

 

  • Symptoms

When you wake up in the morning and wash your face, dead skin cells will arise around the eyebrows and the nose and these areas will feel itchy, even though your skin feels oily. This condition is characterized by the presence of oily yellow scales. Dandruff will also occur on the scalp.

 

  • Treatment Methods

Avoid using oily cosmetic products and soap that irritates the skin. This condition can be treated using steroids, and if it occurs on the scalp, we suggest that you visit our clinic once a week to receive drug therapy.

Urticaria (Hives)

This is a skin disease that occurs when the permeability (allowing molecules to penetrate inside) increases in the blood vessels present in the skin or mucosa, causing the plasma constituents to accumulate in the tissue temporarily. This causes redness in the skin or white swelling, and it is accompanied by severe itchiness. Depending on how long it lasts, it is classified as either acute or chronic urticaria. To be more specific, it is considered a chronic urticaria if it persists for more than 6 weeks.

 

  • Treatment Methods

First, the itchiness is treated using antihistamines. To prevent recurrence, there is a need to find and avoid the actual causes such as food, medication, mite, pollen and animal hair.

Tinea

Tinea is a fungal infection can affect nails, toenails and hair as well as the outermost layer of the skin (stratum corneum) when such are infected by fungus. The most common type of fungal infection is tinea pedis (athlete’s foot), which occurs on the feet, because fungi have an affinity toward damp environments.

 

  • Symptoms

There are three types of tinea pedis: the interdigital type which occurs between the toes; vesicobullous type, where small blisters occur on the soles of the feet and between the toes; and the moccasin type, which is characterized by thickened stratum corneum on the soles of the feet. Tinea (skin fungal infections) can occur on the toenails and fingernails. In the early stages, the nails thicken and become cornified. Over time, the nails eventually crumble and become deformed, and this is accompanied by pain.

 

  • Treatment Methods

In case of inflammation and secondary infection, antibiotics and an anti-inflammatory agent are used in the primary treatment, after which an antifungal agent is used. When the anti-inflammatory agent is used improperly, it can actually aggravate the lesion, so we strongly advise that it be used under a doctor’s prescription. Antifungal treatment must be continued for at least a month. Symptoms may subside to a certain extent after a week of treatment, but the spores of the fungi will be present deep inside the skin, so if you stop the treatment midway, then the condition will recur soon afterwards. In the case of tinea affecting the toenails, a longer treatment period is required.

Clavus (Corn)

A clavus is a hyperkeratotic papules of the skin that is typically found in a small area of the hands and feet that arose from continuous pressure acting on the skin. There is a nucleus in the densest area of the lesion, and pain will be experienced when pressure is applied. It can occur in any areas of the body that are under constant pressure, but it is usually found on the hands and feet. If the top part of the clavus is shaven off, the nucleus will appear in the densest area.

 

  • Treatment Methods

CO2 laser and cryogenic treatment are performed. Recurrence is of concern if there is excess pressure applied on the area after treatment, so proper care must be taken to prevent stimulation of the area concerned.

Verruca (Wart)

Verruca is a small lump (protruding skin that is less than 1cm) that occurs due to excess proliferation of the epidermis as a result of a human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in the skin or mucosa. It may occur in any area of the body, but it typically occurs on the hands, feet, legs and face, and it may even occur in the genital area in case of sexual transmission.

 

  • Treatment Methods

Depending on the type and affected area, cryogenic treatment, CO2 laser, and/or antiviral injections may be used.

Syriongoma

Syriongoma is a common type of benign tumor that is known to originate from the secretory duct of an eccrine sweat gland. It occurs frequently in women past puberty, and it is more commonly found among Asians.

They are papules of the skin that are around 1~3mm in size and in skin or reddish brown color. They occur mostly around the eyes, cheeks and forehead, and can also develop on other areas of the face or neck. Although rare, they can also occur on the torso, reproductive organ and limbs.

 

  • Treatment Methods

Syriongoma tends to merge with a nearby lesion. It does not disappear naturally, and when it grows, it is more difficult to treat and you may even end up with a scar. Thus, prompt treatment is advised.

CO2 laser and Erbium-YAG Laser are used to treat this condition.

Milum

This is a white or yellow ball-shaped pouch that is around 1mm in size and contains dead skin cells. It occurs at shallow depths of the skin, and in the face, especially on the eyelids and on the cheeks below the eyes. They may develop naturally or secondarily after skin damage.

 

  • Treatment Methods

If you try to get rid of a millum at home by squeezing it or poking it with a needle, the content inside may not be eliminated completely, and it may lead to a skin infection or a scar. Thus, we strongly advise that you visit a hospital to receive professional treatment.

A millum occurs closer to the surface (upper dermis layer) than syriongoma, so it is much easier to treat. CO2 laser and Erbium-YAG Laser are used to treat this condition.

Herpes Simplex

Herpes simplex occurs due to an infection of the herpes simplex virus, which affects the DNA. It is characterized by the presence of a couple of small blisters in a single area. It typically occurs around the mouth, nose and genitals. Blisters that occur when you are exhausted are also a herpes simplex.

 

  • Treatment Methods

Generally, acyclovir, which is an antiviral agent, is applied locally, orally administered, or injected intravenously. Valacyclovir or famiciclovir may be used. In case of secondary infection caused by bacteria, applying a topical antibiotic can be helpful.

Herpes Zoster (Shingles)

When the varicella zoster virus (VZV) infects a person at a young age, it causes chickenpox, and enters latency inside the body. When it is activated again, it results in herpes zoster. It rarely occurs among young people, and it mainly affects older adults aged 60 or over, due to their compromised immune system. In most cases, pathological symptoms appear limited to the skin, but for patients with very weakened immune system, it may spread systemically, and lead to death.

 

  • Symptoms and Complications

Signs: The areas where rashes will occur feel itchy, or stingy, or painful a few days before the rashes actually occur.

Symptoms: Blistering rashes accompanied by pain begin to occur on one side of the body or face. Fever, headache, chills and stomachache will also occur.

Complications: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), visual impairment, another bacterial infection, paralysis of the motor nerves, scars

 

  • Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Vaccine

Make sure to get vaccinated against herpes zoster!

At Hus-hu Dermatology Clinic in Apgujeong and Cheonho, we provide vaccinations for herpes zoster.

Most adults aged 50 and older are at risk for herpes zoster, so it is highly recommended that you be vaccinated.

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* People who are 50 years old and older have weakened immune systems, which considerably increases the chance of developing shingles and its severity. This is why we strongly recommend that you be vaccinated against herpes zoster.

  • Is herpes zoster infectious?

People who have had chickenpox have no chance of becoming infected with herpes zoster. However, children, who have not had chickenpox, can be infected by herpes zoster and must take the necessary precautions because it can be transmitted via the fluid that exudes out when a blister bursts. If you have been in contact with an individual infected with herpes zoster, we advise that you consult a doctor.

 

  • Can herpes zoster recur?

There have been rare cases in which herpes zoster has recurred in a healthy individual, who has had herpes zoster previously.